Thursday, September 27, 2012

Will There Be A Worldwide Helium Shortage?


Thanks to their inherent ineptitude of all things scientific and commercial, did the US Republican Party manage to condemn the world to a looming helium shortage that could have been avoided back in 1996?

By: Ringo Bones

Primarily used as a lifting gas, the recent helium spike in price from 75.75 US dollars per thousand cubic feet to 84 US dollars had raised alarm bells to specialist traders with the wherewithal to know that in a worldwide helium shortage, we can very much kiss goodbye all of the modern “miracles” that runs our 21st Century civilization – as liquid helium is currently the only thing that makes the superconducting magnets of every MRI machine work. But is the looming worldwide helium shortage primarily a fault of the inherent ineptitude of the US Republican Party of all things scientific and commerce-related?

Back in 1996, the US Republican Party majority congress overturns the long-established Helium Strategic Reserve Initiative and allowed US government surplus reserves of helium gas to be sold off to private companies, privatizing the US Federal Helium Program, by requiring that all of the US government’s helium supply to be sold off by 2015. Given that the United States produces 30 per cent of the world’s commercial helium supply and privatizing it meant private helium producers will only make the gas if it can make a profit – what incentive is there to set up a “private” US helium strategic reserve? A bone-headed move that resulted in the recent price spike on commercially produced helium gas.

Currently, the US Senate is considering a bill called the Helium Stewardship Act of 2012 that would extend the 2015 deadline for the selloff of the Federal Helium Program thus allowing the federal government to continue supplying world markets with helium by selling it at market prices instead of government-set prices. But why such a noble gas called helium - which was for all intents and purposes – nothing more than an obscure scientific curiosity at the very tail end of the 19th Century be now inexplicably linked with humanity’s destiny for the next millennium?

When helium was first identified as an element back in 1868 by a spectroscopic analysis by a scientific team on an expedition that had traveled to India to study the Sun in during a scheduled solar eclipse – it almost reintroduced the concept of celestial matter – i.e. matter that is different from gross matter or earthly matter – which was previously debunked by Isaac Newton years before. Even in 1871, when Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer and Pierre Jules C├ęsar Jansen conclusively proved that that the “yellow line” of helium’s spectra was not due to any element found on Earth. The source of its discovery was commemorated in the name of the new element, the word “helium” being derived from helios – the Greek name for the sun. Almost a quarter of a century passed before helium was found to occur naturally on Earth.

In 1895, a few months after the discovery of argon, Sir William Ramsay proved that helium is present in the gas expelled when the mineral cleveite – a mixed ore of uranium, thorium, lead and traces of rare-earth elements – is heated. A year later, Heinrich Gustav Johannes Kayser demonstrated the presence of small amounts of helium in the atmosphere. In 1907, Hamilton Perkins Cady and D.F. McFarland analyzed natural gas from an oil well in Kansas which had not burned but extinguished flames and found it to be composed from 1.50 to 21.84 per cent helium.

Helium is widely distributed in nature, although usually in such small amounts that the cost extracting it from such concentrations is commercially prohibitive. The air we breathe contains 0.0005 per cent helium, only krypton and xenon are present in smaller concentrations. Since the early part of the 20th Century, the United States has been the leading supplier of the world’s commercially sourced helium from the only commercially viable source we know so far – i.e. from natural gas wells found in Texas and adjacent states. Such natural gas wells contain about 1.75 per cent helium and 0.5 per cent carbon dioxide, while the rest is composed of methane.

Commercially sold helium is normally extracted from natural gas wells by first extracting the carbon dioxide, then the gas is cooled to -185 degrees Celsius and compressed; this treatment liquefies all of the other gases, except helium and some traces of nitrogen and yields helium that is at least 98 per cent pure – a purity sufficient enough for use as a lifting gas for party balloons and airships. Another method of helium extraction from natural gas is the diffusion process using either quartz, which is almost impermeable to all constituents of natural gas except helium or gas diffusion process using fluorocarbon membranes such as Teflon FEP. Even though the gas diffusion method (quartz diffusion the most expensive followed by the Teflon FEP gas diffusion method) is a more expensive way to extract helium from natural gas compared to cryogenic cooling, it can provide a higher purity of helium for laboratory use.  

Helium is the first element in Group 0 of the Periodic Table. A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas, helium does not combine either with other elements to form compounds or with itself to form diatomic molecules. However, at low temperatures, helium may be incorporated into crystals of other substances as the crystals grow to form “inclusion complexes” or “clathrate compounds”. This may happen if the crystal grows in such a fashion as to form holes of the proper size to hold individual atoms of helium. The clathrate or latticed compounds can have reproducible formulas, since the number of holes in the crystal is reproducibly determined by the method of packing of the molecules. Helium is unusual in its low density, its extremely low boiling point, its close approach to an “ideal” gas and its close relationship to radioactive phenomena.

As the last of the gases to be successfully liquefied, helium – as in liquid helium – is very useful in cryogenic research, from cooling rockets just before launch and especially in superconductivity research. Although during the 1990s, a newer class of superconductors that exhibit conductivity in the liquid nitrogen range of temperatures had more or less reduced liquid helium’s role in superconductivity research as of late. But the most “radical” form or state of helium – called helium II – is produced when the gas is cooled further than ordinary liquid helium – as in only 2.18 degrees Celsius above absolute zero. Helium II is primarily used in the study of superfluid phenomena – i.e. fluids with zero viscosity and exhibit perfect flow that these fluids – like helium II, manages to flow out of their own open containers without tipping them.

Despite advances in robotics, the offshore crude oil drilling industry still can't do without human divers engaged in saturation diving to maintain the vital underwater portion of offshore oil rigs- which is also one of the most important commercial applications of helium. While breathing a 96 percent helium and 4 per cent oxygen mix at 20 to 30 times normal atmospheric pressure to enable commercial saturation divers  to dive over 1,000 feet under the sea, the special helium-oxygen gas mix allows humans to breathe in such relatively high atmospheric pressure environments without suffering physiological side effects of nitrogen narcosis and the toxic effects of breathing oxygen at such elevated pressures while going to and from normal to highly elevated atmospheric pressure deep diving environment during a typical saturation diving shift. 

As a lifting gas, helium – when 98 per cent pure - has 14 per cent less lifting capacity than hydrogen gas, which translates into helium lifting 84 per cent of the weight of displaced air. This means that if 7 cubic meters of helium can lift 7 kilograms, 7 cubic meters of hydrogen gas can only lift 1 kilogram more, but given the non-inflammability of helium, helium virtually replaced hydrogen as the lifting gas of choice in balloons and smaller airships still in use since the Hindenburg disaster at Lakehurst, New Jersey back in May 6, 1937. 

Monday, September 24, 2012

What’s Your Daily Dose of Arsenic?


Despite being well-known as a poison and a carcinogen, is our daily dose of arsenic on the rise? 

By: Ringo Bones 

A rather alarming news story about arsenic appeared last year back in the last week of November 2011 where it was divulged that the United States Department of Agriculture, USDA, has since established the allowable limits of arsenic in locally produced and packaged apple juice at 23 parts per billion while the United States Food and Drug Administration’s established allowable limits for arsenic in bottled water is set at 6 parts per billion. And just back in September 20, 2012, both the FDA and Consumer Reports though each of their independent lab tests had uncovered that rice products in the United States from baby food to rice crispies are contaminated with arsenic above allowable limits. 

The levels might seem alarming, but the US Food and Drug Administration has long ago labeled arsenic a Level 1 Carcinogen and according to the FDA’s established guidelines, the sub-lethal dose of arsenic at around 20 to 30 parts per billion has been known to cause lung, liver and bladder cancers – especially inorganic arsenic compounds. And the only advise both the FDA and Consumer Reports can give to dotting parents is to reduce their babies serving of rice-containing prepackaged baby food to once a week. But should everyone be alarmed by their “still-detectible” by current chemical laboratory analysis methods of their daily dose of arsenic? 

Arsenic – chemical symbol As – is a metallic chemical element and is a member of the nitrogen family, which also includes antimony, bismuth, nitrogen and phosphorous. Arsenic ores occur in the form of sulfides, arsenides, arsenates and arsenates. The most plentiful of arsenic-containing minerals are arsenical pyrites. The world’s leading producers of arsenic are France, Mexico, Sweden and the United States. Compounds of arsenic were known in ancient times, one of the earliest references to them being in the writings of the Greek philosopher Theophrastus around 200 B.C. The discovery of the element is generally credited to Albertus Magnus – a 13th Century German philosopher and writer on physics. In 1733 George Brandt established that white arsenic was actually the oxide of the element and in 1817 Jons Jakob Berzelius determined the weight relationship of arsenic to the other chemical elements. 

The principal use of elemental arsenic is as a constituent of alloys. Added to copper-based alloys, arsenic forms arsenic brasses and bronzes, speculum metal and alloys for high-temperature uses; added to lead-based alloys, arsenic is used for battery grids, bearings and cable sheaths; and alloyed with elemental lead it is used for hardening shot. However, most of the arsenic used commercially is in the form of its compounds. Although water-soluble compounds are poisonous, in small doses they are valuable in medicine for the treatment of diseases of the skin and respiratory organs and were used before the era of antibiotics in treating syphilis and arsenicals are now used to treat drug-resistant / antibiotic resistant strains of syphilis and gonorrhea. Before they were banned for environmental reasons, arsenic compounds are also used in the manufacture of insecticides, rodent poisons, weed killers and glassware, for preserving hides and museum specimens and in tanning leather. 

Arsenic became a poison of choice since ancient times because its “symptoms” on the unfortunate victim resembles that of ordinary cholera. And the most likely reason why apples produced in the United States – especially in Florida – contain higher traces of arsenic compared to ones grown elsewhere is that not only because arsenic-containing insecticides were widely used in the United States during the early part of the 20th Century but also because Florida was the main stash point of the US Army’s then strategic stockpiles of Lewisite – an arsenic containing chemical warfare agent – before it was rendered tactically obsolete around the 1950s by more effective nerve agents like Sarin and VX. Lewisite stockpiles were not destroyed safely fast enough before a significant portion of it managed to seep into Florida’s groundwater system. Could British Anti Lewisite or BAL pills be now be made mandatory “daily vitamin pills” for Florida’s residents? 

Thursday, August 23, 2012

Platinum: The World’s Most Versatile Precious Metal?


Given that its uses now transcend as mere bling in the jeweler’s world, does platinum today truly qualify as the world’s most versatile precious metal? 

By: Ringo Bones 

Lately, platinum gained the mainstream media’s attention when in August 16, 2012, when 34 striking mine workers over a wage dispute in a Lonmin owned platinum mine located in the town of Marikana, South Africa got shot and killed by the local police force. The news of the class sent the global price of platinum rising to 30 US dollars per troy ounce during that day’s trading. Given that South Africa supplies 75% of the world’s platinum needs, the striking workers’ demands for pay raise can only be described as fair. And for some time now, gold has been more expensive than platinum – as by August 17, 2012 platinum prices hovered in the 1,450 US dollars per troy ounce mark as opposed to gold’s 1,600 US dollars per troy ounce level. Given that platinum may soon again be more expensive than gold, will platinum’s price premium truly justified by its title as the world’s most versatile precious metal?  

 Platinum, named after platina or little silver is the most abundant and most used member of the platinum metal family, which includes iridium, osmium, palladium, rhodium and ruthenium. Placed in the second transition metals region of the Periodic Table of elements, ancient artifacts made of metallic platinum have been unearthed. Though platinum wasn’t known as a distinct metal until 1557 when it was discovered in Mexico by the Italian poet and adventurer named Julius Caesar Scaliger. In 1741, the first sample of the metal was bought to Europe by an English metallurgist named Charles Wood. 

The world’s leading producer of platinum is the Republic of South Africa while other major producers are Canada, Russia and former Soviet states in Central Asia. Platinum occurs in both native – as in elemental state and in compounds. In its native state, It is usually occurs in sandlike grains in placer deposits with similar grains of the other metals of its family or with copper, cobalt, nickel or gold ores. However, large nuggets of platinum have also been found. The most important of the platinum ores are sperrylite – platinum arsenide, and cooperlite – platinum sulfide. 

Platinum is the last element in Group VIIIA of the Periodic Table. It is a silvery metal, soft, dense very ductile and malleable, and with a high tensile strength. Its electrical conductivity is comparatively low, and its coefficient of expansion is the lowest of the commercially produced metals. Platinum is untarnished by air, but vaporizes appreciably at red heat. The halogens, including fluorine, have no effect at ordinary room temperature and single mineral acids do not dissolve platinum. Aqua Regia (a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acid) and a mixture of hydrochloric and chloric acids dissolve the metal. It is also attacked at high temperatures by fused nitrates, acid sulfates, hydroxides, peroxides, sulfides, iodine, phosphorous, arsenic, carbon, silicon, selenium and tellurium. 

At present, most of the platinum commercially produced not destined for jewelry use go into the making of catalytic converters in modern automobiles where they remove most of the nitric and sulfuric oxides found in car exhausts. Because of its relative chemical inactivity, platinum, both as a free metal and alloyed with rhodium, is an almost indispensable material for such devices as magneto contacts, spark-plug electrodes, radar parts and in critical analog computer components of World War II era bombsights. In the chemical – as in petrochemical – industries, platinum and its alloys are essential catalysts – for example in making nitric acid from ammonia; As spinnerets and bushings in the production of rayon and glass fiber; As electrodes in industrial processes involving anodic oxidation – as in producing perchlorates and peroxides and electrodeposition of nickel and rhodium and for corrosion and heat-resistant treatment of measuring and recording devices. In addition, platinum has been used extensively in jewelry, dentistry, X-Ray equipment, laboratory apparatus, medical and surgical instruments and heating units (bomb calorimeters). 

Monday, August 6, 2012

In Search Of The Philosopher’s Stone


It is a substance believed to be able to turn base metals into gold and give humans eternal life, but has modern science ever been closer in creating an actual “Philosopher’s Stone”?

By: Ringo Bones

It seems that the now mystical pseudoscience of alchemy was born out of humanity’s historic search for the fabled Philosopher’s Stone – a substance believed to be able to turn base metals – i.e. common cheap metals like lead and iron – into a noble metal like gold. The first alchemist ever to record their activity that survived to posterity were Alexandrian Greeks who thought that metals could directly be transmuted into gold as then theorized by the Greek philosopher Aristotle – but most later European alchemists believed no one could transmute anything until he (or she) had formulated the “Philosopher’s Stone”.

Since the decline of the Roman Empire, alchemy then found its way into every corner of the civilized world – from the hills of China, the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean eventually to the European laboratories. There were many theories about the nature of the Philosopher’s Stone – whether an actual stone, a tincture or a powder. But the main theory on how to use it when turning base metals into gold was to encase it in wax and then drop it into the molten metal that was intended to be converted into gold. During the Medieval Period, news spread throughout Europe that Chinese alchemists were reputed to have successfully created gold from base metals and the life-preserving potion then called the “Elixir of Life” after discovering the secrets of the Philosopher’s Stone.

With persistent tales of  being successfully able to turn base metals into gold during the Medieval Period, European royalty – fearing the depreciation of the monetary value of gold – once declared that the practice of alchemy is punishable by death. During 1457, a group of 12 leading British alchemists wrote a petition to King Henry VI of England seeking exemption from the law banning their practice. The written petition survives to this day and is even preserved and put on display in the Museum of the History of Science at Oxford. Despite being denied success on their search for the Philosopher’s Stone, alchemy managed to survive a few centuries more in Britain where even the great Sir Isaac Newton was reputed to have been a practitioner of alchemy whenever he’s not to busy engrossed in refining his then newly discovered mathematics called calculus.

For all their mumbo jumbo about three-armed dragons and parboiled kings, alchemists managed to leave behind a proud record of their achievements. Alchemists has since been credited with the discovery of five elements – i.e. antimony, arsenic, bismuth, phosphorus and zinc – as well as alcohol and many of the acids and alkali substances found and used in today’s chemistry laboratories. Even though alchemy never manage to achieve its ambitious quest of turning base metals into gold via the Philosopher’s Stone as smug Victorian era scientists laugh at the goal itself. But 20th Century nuclear physicists eventually found a dramatic version of the Philosopher’s Stone in the neutrons that started the chain reaction which set off the first atomic bomb and transmuted uranium into some three dozen different chemical elements. The crafty old alchemists may have had the last laugh after all.

Today – if you have a modest fortune to spare and have the requisite knowledge of chemistry and nuclear physics – you to can convert a lesser valued metal into gold. Today’s small research nuclear fission reactions found in most ivy-league colleges that are primarily used to produce radioactive isotopes for medical use that costs 200 US dollars an hour to run can be used in your very own alchemy experiment. Using ordinary mercury – which is mostly composed of the stable isotope mercury-193 – put it into the nuclear reactor to be bombarded by neutrons and it will be turning about 1/3 of a US cent of the isotope gold-192 a day.

Even though the “synthetic atomic gold-193” is chemically indistinguishable from the good old fashioned mined gold – producing it is so much more - really much more - expensive compared to conventionally mining gold that the world’s gold dealers won’t be fearing their product being depreciated in value by artificially produced atomic gold-192 anytime soon. Maybe you should just make some radioactive gold-198 to be sold for intracavitary use in metastasized cancer treatment in order to recoup some of the costs.